Tuesday, October 23, 2012
• Largest ever such conference organised in India. 170 countries participated. The number of pre registered delegates around 15000. Minister/Vice Minister level participation around 80. More than 400 side events – many organised by the World Bank, UNDP, GEF, other countries and International and national NGOs.
• The elements of successful CoP were flawless logistics, strategic thinking in the development of Agenda's content, participation of a large number of stakeholders and persuasive yet effective negotiations.
• One of the most important outcomes of the CoP is the commitment of the Parties to double the international financial flows for Bio Diversity by 2015. This will translate into additional financial flows to the developing countries to the tune of about US $ 30 billion equivalent to about Rs. 1,50,000 crore over the next 8 years. This is a major achievement especially in the context of .
1. Global economic downturn
2. Contentious stands regarding the robust baseline and the reporting mechanism
3. Absence of any such target in the recommendation sent to the CoP by WGRI
4. With no proposal from Working Group on Review of Implementation (WGRI) the Parties would not have come with the required clearance from the respective Finance Ministries.
India rectified the situation by her initiatives
1. Suggested a two track solution envisaging a preliminary target and a road map.
2. Co sponsored informal dialogue to promote better Understanding among the parties of the issues involved.
3. Co sponsored India UK High Level Panel to assess the requirement of funds.
4. Worked closely with the Bureau to introduce a specific element of preliminary target, so that the parties come prepared with mandates from their Finance Ministries.
5. During the CoP India led the efforts of the Parties to find a satisfactory outcome
• Way Forward India will like to play its leadership role during India's Presidency by supporting and hosting capacity building in the developing countries to help them prepare project proposals to avail the additional funding now envisaged.
• India will now be working closely with all the member countries to make a success of the Hyderabad Road Map. India will also share its experience with other countries to help them establish a robust baseline, so that the target for resources fixed now is further refined by CoP 12. India has already set apart a sum of Rs. 50 crores towards South South cooperation.
• India has launched the initiative of Hyderabad Pledge which is now available on the web site of CBD. All the countries are requested to pledge money for the cause of bio diversity. MEF will now write to all the Ministers the world over requesting them to pledge additional resources for Biodiversity.
• India has already ratified Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit sharing. India during its Presidency will work tirelessly for the ratification of the Protocol by 50 countries so that it comes into force during the Presidency of India. Towards this end, India will offer to host the meeting of the Inter Governmental Committee of Nagoya Protocol. India will also host capacity building workshops of developing Countries to help them take legislative / administrative measures. India has already offered to meet part of the cost of the meeting of the Working Group on Art. 8j on Traditional Knowledge.
• After the resounding success of the Science Express Biodiversity Special. The Government will take special efforts to increase the reach of this Express to even more remote corners of the country to increase the awareness about Biodiversity.
• Many delegates who visited the Biodiversity express in Hyderabad wanted something similar done in their country. India will explore ways of replicating this wonderful success of Biodiversity Express in other countries by providing them appropriate support.
• In Hyderabad, a commemorative Pylon and a Biodiversity Garden have been established. The Prime Minister of India had planted the first tree on behalf of India, representatives of the participating countries have also planted trees. It has been decided to establish a Biodiversity Museum on this site. This will be a token of gratitude to the people of Hyderabad whose hospitality had won the heart of every international delegate. Hyderabad is the first host city of CBD CoP to establish commemorative Pylon, garden and museum.
• During its Presidency India will take special steps to strengthen the State Biodiversity Boards and to prepare Peoples Biodiversity Registers at the village level. A sum of about Rs.250 crores has been approved for this purpose.
• India will substantially increase its allocation for Biodiversity by working closely with other Ministries for mainstreaming of Biodiversity.
• India has instituted together with UNDP Biodiversity Governance Awards. The first such awards were given during the CoP 11. It is now proposed to institute Rajiv Gandhi International Award for Harnessing Biodiversity for Livelihood
In Washington DC, at a Metro Station, on a cold January morning in
2007, this man witah a violin played six Bach pieces for about 45
minutes. During that time, approximately 2,000 people went through
the station, most of them on their way to work. After about 3
minutes, a middle-aged man noticed that there was a musician playing.
He slowed his pace and stopped for a few seconds, and then he hurried
on to meet his schedule.
About 4 minutes later:
The violinist received his first dollar. A woman threw money in the
hat and, without stopping, continued to walk.
At 6 minutes:
A young man leaned against the wall to listen to him, then looked at
his watch and started to walk again.
At 10 minutes:
A 3-year old boy stopped, but his mother tugged him along hurriedly.
The kid stopped to look at the violinist again, but the mother pushed
hard and the child continued to walk, turning his head the whole time.
This action was repeated by several other children, but every parent
– without exception – forced their children to move on quickly.
At 45 minutes:
The musician played continuously. Only 6 people stopped and listened
for a short while. About 20 gave money but continued to walk at their
normal pace. The man collected a total of $32.
After 1 hour:
He finished playing and silence took over. No one noticed and no one
applauded. There was no recognition at all.
No one knew this, but the violinist was Joshua Bell, one of the
greatest musicians in the world. He played one of the most intricate
pieces ever written, with a Stradivarius violin worth $3.5 million
dollars. Two days before, Joshua Bell sold-out a theater in Boston
where the seats averaged $100 each to sit and listen to him play the
This is a true story. Joshua Bell, playing incognito in the DC Metro
Station, was organized by the Washington Post as part of a social
experiment about perception, taste and people's priorities.
This experiment raised several questions:
*In a common-place environment, at an inappropriate hour, do we perceive beauty?
*If so, do we stop to appreciate it?
*Do we recognise talent in an unexpected context?
One possible conclusion reached from this experiment could be this:
If we do not have a moment to stop and listen to one of the best
musicians in the world, playing some of the finest music ever written,
with one of the most beautiful instruments ever made . . .
How many other things are we missing as we rush through life?
Monday, October 22, 2012
A very tired traveler came to the banks of a river.
There was no bridge by which he could cross. It was winter, and the surface of the river was covered with ice. It was getting dark, and he wanted to reach the other side while there was enough light to see. He debated about whether or not the ice would bear his weight.
Finally, after much hesitation and fear, he got down on his knees and began very cautiously to creep across the surface of the ice. He hoped that by disturbing the weight of his body, the ice would be less apt to break under the load.
After he made his slow and painful journey about halfway across the river, he suddenly heard the sound of singing behind him. Out of the dusk, there came a 4-horse load of coal driven by a man singing merrily as he went to his carefree way. Here was the traveler, fearfully inching his way on his hands and knees. And there, as if whisked along by the winter's wind, went the driver, his horses, his sled, and the heavy load of coal over the same river!
The above story illustrates how many of us go through life.:
Some stand on the bank of decisions unable to make up their minds about the course to take. Others stand on the banks trying to muster enough courage to cross over to the other side of the task or problem encountered.
On the other hand, some individuals crawl and creep through life for fear of thin ice.
Their faith is not strong enough to hold them up. Still there are those who whisked along whistling as they go. Their faith is UNSHAKABLE.When we face the river of difficulties, we do not have to fear, nor do we creep through life. God has promised to help, and with God's help we can merrily make our way to the other side safely
Sunday, October 21, 2012
Senior Haryana government officer Ashok Khemka, shunted out of his post, was transferred 43 times in over 21 years in the state, an unprecedented service record for an officer anywhere in the country, government officials said Wednesday.
Khemka, who began a probe into the mutation of a 3.53-acre land by Sonia Gandhi's son-in-law Robert Vadra to realty major DLF, was transferred last week from the post of special collector and director general (consolidation) in the land management and acquisition department in the state.
He held that post for less than three months, having joined July 18.
Against this backdrop, the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer claimed that the state government had "abruptly" transferred him as a "punishment" for acting as a whistle-blower in several "dubious" land transactions.
Officials of the ministry of personnel, which manages service records of IAS officers, said they have not heard of any other instance of a service officer being kicked around in such a manner in any other state.
The ministry's records on Khemka, a computer engineering doctorate, show that he is a first class in computer science in both his B.Tech and Ph.D.
A domicile of West Bengal, he is a 1991 IAS batch officer, with Haryana as his home cadre. He got his first posting after joining the service as a sub-divisional officer in 1993.
Since then, he has served the Haryana government in departments such as information technology, housing and urban development, fisheries, electronics, AIDS control, housing board, Hartron (a state-run public sector unit), finance, planning, agriculture, warehousing, administrative reforms, social justice and empowerment, and land revenue management and acquisition.
His executive record sheet, maintained by the ministry of personnel, notes that he has had only three postings in his career where he could stay put for over a year. These were: as registrar in Rohtak between 1999-2000 when he was on deputation to the human resources development ministry; as director of training in the labour and employment department between 2000 and 2001 for 14 months; and as chief administrator in the state housing board for 17 months, the longest stint in a post for him, from 2005 to 2007.
Soon after his latest transfer as managing director of the Haryana Seeds Development Corporation, a post held by an officer 12 years his junior as additional charge, Khemka wrote to state Chief Secretary P.K. Chaudhery.
Khemka pointed out that he had gone through over 40 transfers in his 21 years of service and sought a minimum tenure of two years for an officer under the statutory IAS (Fixation of Cadre Strength) Regulations, 2010.
He also noted that his transfer violated the regulations.However, the state government has maintained that his postings are its prerogative
source : http://in.news.yahoo.com/khemkas-43-transfers-21-years-unprecedented-113626852.html
Conversion of Sea Water into Potable WaterAn eighteen lakh (18 lakh) litres per day capacity desalination plant operating on the Reverse Osmosis (RO) process has been setup, as part of Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP) at Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu. Another plant, a Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) Desalination Plant with a capacity of forty five lakh (45 lakh) litres per day has also been setup at Kalpakkam as a part of NDDP. It is located adjacent to Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) and uses low pressure steam as energy input for MSF desalination plant. The hybrid MSF-RO plant is operated to produce distilled water for high end industrial applications and potable water for drinking and other applications.
The per litre cost of conversion of seawater into potable water by atomic energy varies between 5 & 10 paise depending on site conditions, end product quality and the technology in use.
The technology for setting up desalination plants is available with the Government in the Department of Atomic Energy for large scale conversion of sea water into potable water.
Flood Early Warning System ProjectThe Flood Early Warning System (FLEWS) project is aimed to provide advance information on flood events as an input to disaster preparedness. However, FLEWS is not intended to prevent an impending flood event. FLEWS was initiated as Research and Development (R&D) project, at the behest of North Eastern Council (NEC) during 2009. It is currently extended to 14 districts in Assam covering both Brahmaputra and Barak valley on an operational basis.
The FLEWS project has been improving over the years both in terms of success rate in forecasting flood events (i.e., actual flood occurrence or rise in river level) and also in improving the lead time (time difference between the forecast issued and event occurrence). The success rate of flood prediction has improved from 25% in the year 2009 to 75% in the year 2011. During the current year the success rate has further improved to 80% for a total of 21 forecasted events in the 14 districts. The maximum lead time of forecast has improved from 7 hours to 18 hours during the same period.
The FLEWS model is terrain specific and in addition to satellite based inputs, in-situ data on rainfall and river discharge at critical points is also required. The Central Water Commission (CWC), Ministry of Water Resources is mandated for flood forecasts in India and Department of Space does not have any plan for extending FLEWS to other States including Odisha.
Operation of Chandrayaan II:
Government has approved Chandrayaan-II Project in September 2008. Chandrayaan –II is envisaged as a Indo-Russian joint project consisting of (i) an unmanned Orbiter with scientific instruments to orbit the Moon; (ii) Lander module to be supplied by Russia and a Rover module by India for in-situ scientific exploration of the Moon. The work on Chandrayaan-II is in progress. Chandrayaan-II does not envisage manned lunar expedition.
There is no immediate plan for manned mission to Moon.
Satellite to Mars:
Government has approved in August 2012 the proposal to undertake the first unmanned mission to planet Mars to be launched during October- November 2013 using India's Polar Satellite Launch vehicle (PSLV-XL) from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. The spacecraft will be placed in an elliptical orbit of 500 km X 80,000 km around Mars by September 2014 after a voyage of nearly 300 days from the Earth's orbit.
The primary aim and objective of the Mars Orbiter mission is to demonstrate India's technological capability to reach Martian orbit. Further during the orbital life of the orbiter around Mars, scientific studies would be undertaken.
The proposed Indian initiative to Mars will pave the way for future scientific missions, and bring a strategic advantage to India. The Mars Orbiter mission would also generate national pride and excitement in the young minds.
Thorium Reserve in the CountryExploration activities carried out by Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD), a constituent unit of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), has resulted in establishing 3.74 million tones of Monazite in Andhra Pradesh which contains about 3,36,600 tonnes of thorium oxide equivalent to 2,96,000 tonnes of thorium metal.
These reserves are explored and established.
Indian three stage nuclear power programme is aimed at long term energy independence including use of thorium resources in the third stage. In order to realize this goal, presently, the first stage of programme is accomplished through the nuclear reactors based on natural uranium fuel. The second stage envisages setting up of Fast Breeder Reactors. A Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor is planned at Kalpakkam. The utilization of thorium would be technically possible only in the third stage. Since the country is still in the first stage of the nuclear power programme, the requirement of Thorium by 2020 is quite modest.
Atomic Power Plants Presently Working in States:
Nuclear Power Plants are currently operational in Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. The details are as under:-
Note: RAPS-1 (100 MW) is under extended shutdown for techno-economic assessment on continuation of operations.
|State||Station & Location||Capacity (MW)||Electricity generated (MU) 2011-12|
|Maharashtra||Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS), Units 1 to 4, Tarapur||2X160+ |
|Rajasthan||Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS), Units 2 to 6, Rajasthan||200+ |
|Tamil Nadu||Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Units 1 & 2, Kalpakkam||2X220||2516|
|Uttar Pradesh||Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS), Units 1 & 2, Narora||2X220||1984|
|Gujarat||Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS), Units 1 & 2, Kakrapar||2X220||3787|
|Karnataka||Kaiga Generating Station (KGS), Units 1 to 4, Kaiga||4X220||5212|
Nuclear power plants are presently under construction in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. The details are as under:-
|Project||Location & State||Capacity (MW)|
|Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP) Units 1 & 2||Kudankulam, Tamil Nadu||2X1000|
|Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR)||Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu||500|
|Kakrapar Atomic Power Project (KAPP), Units 3&4||Kakrapar, Gujarat||2X700|
|Rajasthan Atomic Power Project (RAPP), Units 7&8||Rawatbhata, Rajasthan||2X700|
The XII Five Year Plan proposals envisage start of work on new projects in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The details are as under:-
|Location & State||Project||Capacity (MW)|
|Gorakhpur, Haryana||Gorakhpur Units 1&2||2X700|
|Chutka, Madhya Pradesh||Chutka Units 1&2||2X700|
|Mahi Banswara, Rajasthan||Mahi Banswara Units 1&2||2X700|
|Kaiga, Karnataka||Kaiga Units 5&6||2X700|
|Kudankulam, Tamil Nadu||Kudankulam Units 3&4||2X1000|
|Jaitapur, Maharashtra||Jaitapur Units 1&2||2X1650|
|Kovvada, Andhra Pradesh||Kovvada Units 1&2||2X1500|
|Chhaya Mithi Virdi, Gujarat||Chhaya Mithi Virdi Units 1&2||2X1100|
|Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu||Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) Units 1&2||2X500|
|Location to be decided||Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR)||300|
In addition, pre-project activities at Bhimpur in Madhya Pradesh and Haripur in West Bengal are planned in the XII Five Year Plan.
The Sector wise and break up of XII Five Year Plan capacity addition programme (excluding nuclear) is as under:-
Further, capacity addition target of 29800 MW power from different renewable energy sources, which includes 15000 MW from wind; 2100 MW from small hydro project; 10,000 MW from solar energy; 2000 MW from biomass & cogeneration and 700 MW from urban & industrial waste has been envisaged during the Twelfth Five Year Plan.
Radiation Levels Around Nuclear Power Projects
Radiation dose levels around nuclear power plants are negligibly higher than those arising out of natural background radiation. The average radiation dose received by an individual from natural background is 2400 micro-Sievert per year. The radiation levels at Indian nuclear power plant sites are higher from the average natural background level yielding a additional radiation dose of 1 to 25 micro-Sievert per year at a plant boundary.
Therefore, there are no ill effects of radiation around nuclear power plants. Epidemiological surveys for health assessment in respect of employees working in close proximity to radiation and their families at each of the operating nuclear power plants have been carried out. Nearby villages have been covered in the studies to the extent of employees and their families residing there.
The studies were carried out by reputed local medical colleges in association with Tata Memorial Centre (TMC), Mumbai, a premier cancer research centre in the country. These studies comprised filling a questionnaire with respect to demographic, medical data and other relevant details, and carrying out a medical examination. The primary emphasis of these studies was on prevalence of cancer and congenital anomalies (birth defects) among the employees and their families. The studies have been conducted at all the operating nuclear power plants located at the six sites across the country as per the following details:-
|Site||Year of study|
|Tarapur, Maharashtra||1992 to 1994|
|Narora, Uttar Pradesh||1997|
|Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu||1997 to 1998 & 2006|
Epidemiological studies were also conducted for the villagers living in the vicinity of nuclear power plant sites at Kaiga, Kakrapar and Kudankulam before start of operation of these plants. These form the baseline for comparison with studies at a later date.
The studies have established that there has not been any rise in cancer morbidity, birth defects or any other ailments amongst the employees, who are at work or live in close proximity of nuclear power plants, in comparison to the national average. In addition, the medical examination of occupational workers at each of the operating nuclear power plant is carried out every year in accordance with regulatory requirement prescribed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). The scientific data of these annual medical examinations collated and analysed by Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) during 1995 to 2010 (16 years) establishes that the cancer prevalence among the employees is lower, at 54.05 per lakh, compared to national prevalence of 98.05 per lakh.
The above information was given by the Minister of State in the Ministry Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions and in the Prime Minister's Office, Shri V. Narayanasamy in a written reply in the Lok Sabha in Aug.2012
Source : PIB
Friday, October 19, 2012
What Warren Buffet says about basic investing, spending, savings are so true. Most of us know it, however too many of us do not live it.
If it does make a change in your life, thank HIM (I mean God) because this is common sense. WB said it once, I am just reproducing it.
1. On Earning:
Do not depend on a single income. Invest and create a second/ third source of income:
This means when you are young your first task should be saving and investing. By creating a second source of income you are quickly reducing your dependence on your job. This could help you to set out on your own one day. The quicker you can do it, the better.
2. On Spending:
If you buy things that you do not need, you may soon have to sell things you need:
It kind of summarizes Gen X's reaction towards 'luxuries'. As a part of Gen X we were perhaps criticised for some of our expenses, so it could be a generational thing even for WB. However, having goals and knowing where you are going, and not spending just to 'show off' are important lessons for all generations.
3. On Savings:
Do not spend what is left after spending, instead spend after you save/invest:
Also called 'Pay Yourself First'. If you realise that investing in a pension plan or for your kid's education is just helping you to save more later on. It is not a sacrifice, it is just postponing consumption. So understand, invest and then spend.
4. On taking Risk:
Never test the depth of the river with both your feet:
If you are doing something, do small. If you are a first gen investor, do not be carried away by equity lovers like me and put all your money in equity. Do a SIP with a small amount, and test the waters. Do a SIP of Rs. X (which could be 10% of your take home pay) for 5 years and then step up. And for heavens sake understand risk of inflation, and the concept of real returns
5. On Investing:
Do not put all eggs in one basket:
Immaterial of who you are and how much you understand, create a portfolio. A full range lunch plate is always better than just one item. So create a portfolio with bonds, bond funds, PPF, NSC, equity, mutual funds, and on the risk side medical and term insurance.
6. On Expectation:
Honesty is expensive, do not expect it from cheap people:
Not everybody is honest, nor does everybody want to be honest. Honest advisers are difficult to find especially in Health and Wealth, be careful.
The author P V Subramanyam is a Chartered Accountant by qualification and a financial trainer by profession. Writing being a passion he also regularly pens his thought in his blog Subramoney.com
Thursday, October 18, 2012
According to a new inflation-adjusted list of the world's richest people of all time, the Nizam, who ruled Hyderabad between 1886-1967, was ranked sixth with USD 236 billion.
Osman Ali Khan died in 1967 at age of 80. Mansa Musa I of Mali - the obscure 14th century African king - was named the richest person in all history, British newspaper 'The Independent' reported today.
The list, compiled by the Celebrity Net Worth website, ranks the world's 24 richest people of all time. The list advertises itself as the top 25, but only 24 names appear in the list.
Although the list spans 1,000 years, some aspects of wealth appear consistent throughout history; there are no women on the list, only three members are alive today, and 14 of the top 25 are American.
The list uses the annual 2199.6 per cent rate of inflation to adjust historic fortunes - a formula that means USD 100 million in 1913 would be equal to USD 2.299.63 billion today.
Mansa Musa I ruled West Africa's Malian Empire in the early 1300s, making his fortune by exploiting his country's salt and gold production.
Second on the list are the Rothschild family, whose descendants are still among the richest people on the planet.
Starting out in banking in the late 18th Century, Mayer Amschel Rothschild's finance house accumulated a total wealth of USD 350 billion.
Meanwhile, John D Rockefeller, third on the list, is the richest American to have ever lived, worth USD 340 billion in today's USD at the time of his death in 1937.
In comparison, the poorest man on the list is 82-year-old Warren Buffett, who at his peak net worth, before he started giving his fortune to charity, was USD 64 billion.
Fabiola was awarded her membership certificate by Mensa in August this year. She says she did not expect the score. She had to wait for a month for her scores instead of the usual two weeks as the results were lost in transit.
She said that "The questions were slightly more confusing (from the practice IQ tests online) and we did not have much time to do them, so I could not really tell how I was doing," as reported by TOI. Fabiola wishes to study medicine at Cambridge University and become a surgeon as she likes the idea of helping people. Her father Anthony was born in England and is a lecturer. Her mother Rene, a Margao resident who moved to London after marriage, said, "Obviously I had heard about Mensa and genius IQ level children, but I'm amazed that my own daughter is one," as reported by TOI.
In an interview it was observed that "162 is the highest possible score anyone can achieve in the UK and European test".
When asked what the Mensa membership means to Fabiola, Rene was quoted saying to TOI "People keep asking me the same thing, and to be honest I don't know. Hopefully it will mean an entry into the best universities and later job opportunities."
Fabiola is talented and has a purple belt in karate, learns taekwondo, chess and music too. She plays the piano and the guitar and as per her peers has an amazing voice. She is also presently working on a novel.
Tuesday, October 16, 2012
Saturday, October 13, 2012
Hangeul has won the gold medal at the World Alphabet Olympics. The World Alphabet Association reported on Tuesday that hangeul, the Korean alphabet, placed first in the second World Alphabet Olympics held in Bangkok, Thailand from October 1st through 4th. South India's Telugu and the English alphabet came in second and third, respectively. World Alphabet Olympics
World Alphabet OlympicsThe World Alphabet Olympics is an event that selects the most distinguished alphabet among all the writing systems created or modified in the world. In October 2009, sixteen nations with their own original alphabets gathered to evaluate which set of letters was the most outstanding. It was the world's first competition to discern which alphabet was the best. It is organized by scholars from the private sector, as fairness can be compromised when governments are involved. This year's Olympics was attended by twenty-seven countries, including Germany, Spain, Portugal, Greece, and India, that have their own writing system or characters derived from other alphabets. Representatives from the participating nations were given thirty minutes each to present what makes their alphabets superior, and their presentations were evaluated by the judges from six countries – the U.S., India, Sudan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Portugal. The alphabets were judged on the characters' origin, structure and type, the number of letters, ability to express sounds by combining the characters, independence, and application and growth potentials.
While booking ticket with railway's, i used to see WL (waiting list),RLWL(Remote Location waiting list),FWL ( Full waiting list)....etc
What is the meaning of these .......
Reservation Against Cancellation ('RAC') refers to a ticket status where you have requested a reservation for a berth but do not actually have a reservation for a berth until some berth becomes available through the cancellation of some other reserved ticket. RAC ticket holders can board the reserved coach for the overnight journey, but are only assured of reserved sitting accommodation on the seats at the side of the coach (not in the compartments). If no berths become available, two RAC ticket holders have to share the seats on the side without converting it to a berth by laying down the bunk over them. A third RAC ticket holder gets to use the upper side berth. The side berths are shorter than the berths in the main compartments.
Tickets on the Wait List ('WL') are not even guaranteed such sitting accommodation, and are entirely unconfirmed at the time of issue. Seating or sleeping accommodation will be available only if enough other persons with reservations cancel their tickets. On some popular routes, high wait-list numbers in the hundreds are not unusual, and holders of such tickets may still end up with reserved accommodation by the day of the journey since there is a lot of flux as people cancel and re-arrange their trips.
For many trains it is not unusual to see high numbers for the waitlist positions, such as in the 300s. For some trains, this is still reasonable because the trains typically see a lot of cancellation and re-booking activity in the days just before the journey. For some other trains, the high numbers on the wait list indicating that such requests for reservations are still being accepted may simply mean that the zonal railway is planning to run an additional trains as specials to clear the rush later. When the maximum wait list number defined for a train is reached for a particular day's journey, the reservation system refuses to accept any more requests for that day. In such cases, this is shown as 'REGRET' in the reservation status.
The reservation status for a train is shown online in a format such as 24-4-2005 WL 273 / WL 189. This indicates that earlier the position was a wait list of 273, and now the wait list has shrunk to 189; i.e., if you were to try to book a ticket now, you would get a wait list position higher than 189. A notation such as 24-4-2005 REGRET / WL 215 indicates that earlier no reservations were being accepted even on the wait list, and now the wait list position is at 215.
Most waitlisted tickets are issued by the originating station of a route. Stations close to the originating station may also share the same wait list (e.g., Chennai Egmore, Mambalam, Tambaram, Chengalput all share wait lists and reservation quotas with Chennai Central). This waitlist is the General Waiting List or simply Waiting List (WL).
The number of tickets that can be issued in total for travel from the originating station, issued by booking offices of the originating station and other nearby stations is known as the General Quota (somewhat unintuitively abbreviated 'GN'). Smaller intermediate stations that do not participate in the networked computerized reservation system issue tickets from specific quotas, known as Remote Location Quotas ('RLQ') and Road Side Quotas ('RS'), and these quotas can themselves have wait lists.
A Pooled Quota Waiting List ('PQWL') is shared by several small stations in a particular region. E.g., Tiruppur, Salem, etc., share in the quota and wait list for some trains originating from Trivandrum or Mangalore. As another example, the 2723 Andhra Pradesh Exp. has three quotas, for Secunderabad - New Delhi, Secunderabad - nagpur, and Secunderabad - Bhopal. There is also a pooled quota for passengers travelling from Secunderabad to stations beyond Bhopal but short of Jhansi. If this quota is exhausted, a passenger is placed in the pooled quota waiting list. Pooled Quotas normally operate only from the originating station of a route, and there is only one Pooled Quota for the entire run. The Pooled Quota is intended to be utilized by passengers travelling from the originating station to a station short of the terminating station, or from an intermediate station to the terminating station, or between two intermediate stations. Such remote location quotas are also provided when there is a very strong demand for the train in question, because of which, without such additional quotas, all seats or berths might be fully consumed by passengers from the originating station leaving nothing available for those wishing to travel from intermediate points. Vacant Pooled Quota berths are automatically tapped by the PRS for booking end-to-end passengers. Passengers in the Pooled Quota Waiting List are cleared against the vacancies in the earmarked Pooled Quota only, or against General Quota vacancies available at the time of charting.
A Running Line Waiting List ('RLWL'), also known as Remote Location Waiting List or Road-Side Location Waiting List applies to the quotas of specific intermediate ticketing stations on a route, known as the Remote Location Quota. E.g., Solapur has a quota with a corresponding wait list on the Mumbai - Chennai mail). The intermediate stations are usually the more important towns or cities on the route. The RL quota takes care of passengers travelling from these intermediate stations up to or short of the terminating station. RL quota tickets are never available from the originating station of the route. When the RL quota is exhausted, RAC (Reservation against Cancellation) begins, and it is then followed by ticketing on the RL Waiting List; in some cases when the RL Quota is small, the RL Waiting List is active immediately. There can be more than one Remote Location Quota for some long distance trains, corresponding to different stations en route. Passengers in the Remote Location Quota Waiting List are cleared against the vacancies in the earmarked Pooled Quota only, or against General Quota vacancies available at the time of charting.
In some cases if a ticket is to be booked from an intermediate station to another intermediate station, and is not covered by the general quota nor by the remote location quotas or pooled quota, the request for the ticket may go into a Request Waiting List ('RQWL'). A ticket on this list is usually confirmed only when there is a confirmed ticket for a passenger travelling from the originating station to that intermediate station, although in the case of some Rajdhani routes and other long-distance trains specific quotas may be earmarked for use by passengers on the RQWL, for some intermediate stations. Tickets for travel from an intermediate point to the terminating station are also handled in the same way if there is no Remote Location Quota defined for that intermediate point.
For road-side station quotas, berths or seats are booked by the originating station for journeys up to the road-side station and distance restrictions may not apply. If berths or seats are redefined from a remote location, then booking can be done beyond the road-side station, within the limits for the remote location's quota. In no case, however, will through passengers be booked on multiple quotas, e.g., partway on the general quota of the originating station and the rest of the journey on a remote location quota.
Other Quotas: There are several kinds of quotas for tickets for various special categories of passengers, other than the quotas for intermediate stations mentioned above, ticket agencies in other towns ('OS' = Out-Station quota), etc. These include small numbers of seats and berths set aside for railway officials ('HO' = Head Office quota ('High Official' quota)), ministers and high bureaucrats as well as members of parliament and their staff ('PH' quota ('Parliament House')), defence officials ('DF' quota), foreign tourists ('FT' = Foreign Tourist), handicapped travellers ('HP' = Handicapped Person), railway staff on duty ('DP' = Duty Pass) (this has its own waiting list, the 'DPWL' or Duty Pass Waiting List, especially for railway staff travelling on Privilege Passes on Rajdhani trains), women travellers ('LD' or 'LQ' = Ladies Quota), and those needing to travel for extremely urgent reasons ('EQ' = Emergency Quota), etc. Each one of these quotas can theoretically also have its own waiting list, usually denoted by the quota abbreviation followed by 'WL', e.g., FTWL, EQWL, HPWL, etc. RAC or Reservation Against Cancellation (see above) is technically not a quota, but is often shown as one, as 'RC' quota.
Tatkal Scheme: For a surcharge, which varies depending on the class of travel, it is possible to reserve accommodations for a rail trip just 1 to 5 days before the start of the journey, even if the normal reservation quotas are fully booked. The Tatkal scheme originally allowed booking a ticket just 1 day in advance of the journey but this was later changed to 3 and then to 5 days in advance - and subsequently shortened  to 2 days. (Please check the current rules.) An identification document should be shown during reservation and the same document carried on the journey and produced on demand, a measure to foil the re-sale of reserved tickets. This scheme was introduced by IR as a measure against travel agents and touts monopolizing reserved tickets, and to allow for emergency travel on busy sections. Tatkal reservations come out of a Tatkal Quota (code 'CK', with waiting list 'CKWL'), although in some cases 'TQ' has been seen in reference to this. Concessional tickets are not allowed under the Tatkal Quota, nor are Senior Citizen passes. The complete end-to-end charges for the journey are collected in addition to the Tatkal surcharge, even if the passenger intends to board the train at an intermediate station. (This may have changed  and the correct partial fare for the journey may be payable now.) In some cases, Tatkal quota fares are charged at Peak Period rates even if travel is during non-peak periods. The Tatkal scheme was originally introduced for selected trains, and for end-to-end travel only, but has now been extended to all trains where reservations are available and for partial journeys as well. The Tatkal booking period was originally 1 day in advance of the departure date, but was later extended successively to 3 and then 5 days. At the beginning of the scheme, the Tatkal Quota allowed for 72 berths in SL, 6 berths per coach in 3A, 4 berths per coach in 2A, and 6 seats per coach in CC, but the quota has been greatly expanded in recent years . The Tatkal Quota is higher on the weekends than on weekdays for most trains. Vacant berths in the Tatkal Quota are used for clearing General RAC and WL passengers.
What is the Budget all about?
The Budget refers to the 'Annual Financial Statement', laid before both the Houses of Parliament (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha). This statement of accounts is valid for one financial year. The financial year starts on April 1 every year and ends on March 31.
The statement includes the estimated receipts and expenditure of the government of India for the financial year.
When was the first Budget presented?
The first Budget of independent India was presented on November 26, 1947 by Finance Minister R K Shanmugham Chetty
The need for a Budget?
There is a need for proper budgeting of resources. The country's resources have to be allocated for various governmental initiatives. Every item of expenditure has to be calculated and worked out for a specific period.
Prudent spending is essential for the stability of a government and proper earnings are a pre-requisite to wise spending.
Every budget deals with actual figures for the preceding years and revised figures for the current year and Budget estimates for the following years and how funds should be allocated to various projects and sectors.
Who controls the Budget process?
The preparation of Budget for the approval of the legislature is a Constitutional obligation of the governments, both at the Centre and the State levels.
The elected representatives have a say over taxation proposals, expenditure and financial matters in our system of Parliamentary financial control.
When is Budget presented?
The President decides the date of the Budget. By convention, the Budget is presented in Parliament on the last working day of February.
Who has the responsibility for preparing the Budget?
The budget division in the finance ministry has the overall responsibility. It prepares the budget on the basis of proposals received from various departments and ministries and the availability of funds.
However, the final approval comes from the prime minister.
Demands for Grants
The estimates of expenditure included in the Budget and required to be voted by Lok Sabha are in the form of Demands for Grants. These demands are arranged ministry-wise and a separate demand for each of the major services is presented.
How is the Budget presented?
The finance minister presents the Budget in the Parliament. The Budget Speech of the finance minister is usually in two parts. Part A deals with general economic survey of the country, while Part B relates to taxation proposals.
The finance minister unveils proposals for fresh taxation in the Budget and makes important announcements in line with the government's agenda for growth and development.
The 'Annual Financial Statement' is laid on the table of Rajya Sabha after the finance minister winds up his speech in the Lok Sabha.
The Budget of the Indian Railways is presented separately to Parliament and dealt with separately, although the receipts and expenditure of the Railways form part of the Consolidated Fund of India and the figures relating to them are included in the 'Annual Financial Statement'.
What is Vote-on-Account?
The discussion on the Budget begins a few days after its presentation. The Parliament gets the opportunity to discuss the budgetary provisions and the various proposals for taxation.
Since Parliament is not able to vote on the entire Budget before the commencement of the new financial year, there is a need to keep enough finance at the disposal of government to run the administration.
A special provision is, therefore, made for a 'Vote on Account' by which government obtains the vote of Parliament for a sum sufficient to incur expenditure on various items for a part of the year.
Normally, Vote on Account is taken for two months only. But during election year or when it is anticipated that the main Demands and Appropriation Bill will take longer time than two months, Vote on Account may be for a period exceeding two months.
How does the consideration of the demands happen?
After the first stage of discussion on both the Railway and the General Budget is over, the House is adjourned for a fixed period. During this period, the Demands for Grants of various Ministries/departments, including Railways, are considered by concerned standing committees. These committees are required to make their reports to the House within specified period.
The system of consideration of Demands for Grants by the standing committees was introduced from the Budget for the year 1993-94.
The standing committee consists of 45 members: 30 from the Lok Sabha and 15 from the Rajya Sabha. The reports of the standing committees are of a persuasive nature.
What is a Cut Motion?
A process through which a reduction in the sums sought by government on grounds of economy or difference of opinion on matters of policy or just in order to voice a grievance is called cut motion.
What is an Appropriation Bill?
After the general discussion on the Budget proposals and voting on Demands for Grants have been completed, the government introduces the Appropriation Bill.
The Appropriation Bill is intended to give authority to government to incur expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India.
The government is required to get the Budget passed by July 31, the date when the vote-on-account approved by Parliament allowing the government to withdraw money from the Consolidated Fund of India expires.
What is a Finance Bill?
After passing of Appropriation Bill, the Finance Bill is introduced and it incorporates all taxation proposals. At this stage, amendments for tax proposals can be moved.
The Finance Bill seeking to give effect to the government's taxation proposals which is introduced in Lok Sabha immediately after the presentation of the General Budget, is taken up for consideration.
However, certain provisions in the Bill relating to levy and collection of fresh duties or variations in the existing duties come into effect immediately on the expiry of the day on which the Bill is introduced.
Parliament has to pass the Finance Bill within 75 days of its introduction. It enters the statute as the Finance Act, after which final Budget gets approved.
What are Supplementary/Excess Grants?
The government cannot spend more than the sum authorised by Parliament. When there is a need for extra expenditure, a supplementary estimate is laid before Parliament.
If any money has been spent on any service during a financial year exceeding the amount granted for that service and for that year, the minister of finance/railways presents a Demand for Excess Grant.
Friday, October 12, 2012
ప్రతీ పిసి యూజర్కీ ఉపయోగపడే అద్భుతమైన 100 తెలుగు హై క్వాలిటీ వీడియోలు ఇవి.
తెలుగు వారందరికీ పనికొచ్చే ఈ కలెక్షన్ని మీ friendsకీ షేర్ చెయ్యగలరు.
1. మొబైల్ నుండే ఫ్రీగా SMSలు ఇలా పంపండి.. http://bit.ly/srifreesms
2. విండోస్ 8 ఆరు సెకండ్లలోనే వస్తుంది ఇలా.. http://bit.ly/sriwinboot8
3. ఇన్స్టాల్ అయిన అప్లికేషన్లు ఇతరులు రన్ చేయొద్దా? http://bit.ly/sriapps
4. Facebook Profile Vists స్కామ్ ఇంత ప్రమాదకరం http://bit.ly/sriprofilevisits
5. అన్ని భారతీయ బ్యాంకుల సమాచారం మీ చేతుల్లోనే ఇలా http://bit.ly/sribanks
6. Gmail అటాచ్మెంట్లలోనూ మీకు కావలసింది వెదకొచ్చు http://bit.ly/srisearch
7. సైబర్ నేరాల గురించి ఎలా కంప్లయింట్ చేయాలి? http://bit.ly/sricyber
8. సినిమా లేదా షార్ట్ ఫిల్మ్ తీయాలా ఇది చూడండి http://bit.ly/sriscreenplay
9. ఫొటోషాప్లో ఇమేజ్ సైజ్ చాలా ముఖ్యం ఇలా.. http://bit.ly/photoshopclass1
10. విండోస్ 8 అడ్వాన్స్డ్ సెట్టింగ్స్ ఇవి.. http://bit.ly/sriwin8class5
11. పెన్డ్రైవ్ వైరస్ల వల్ల సమస్యలా? ఇది చాలా బెస్ట్ http://bit.ly/srivirusfree
12. తెలుగు అనూ ఫాంట్లు విండోస్ 7, 8లలో ఇలా వాడొచ్చు http://bit.ly/srianu7
13. విండోస్ 8లో Ribbon Interface ఎంత బాగుందో http://bit.ly/sriwin8class4
14. ఫొటోషాప్ ఇకపై XPలో పనిచేయదు.. ఎందుకంటే.. http://bit.ly/sriadobe
15. రిమూవబుల్ డ్రైవ్లను మళ్లీ మళ్లీ ఎందకు గుచ్చాలి? http://bit.ly/sriusbfact
16. Google Drive, SkyDrive నుండే నేరుగా అటాచ్మెంట్లు http://bit.ly/sritips1
17. విండోస్ 8లో మోడ్రన్ అప్లికేషన్లు ఎలా పనిచేస్తాయి? http://bit.ly/sriwin8class3
18. ప్రోగ్రాములు సెట్టింగులు విండోస్ 8లో ఎక్కడ? http://bit.ly/sriwin8class2
19. విండోస్ 8లో కొత్తగా వచ్చిన మార్పులేమిటి? http://bit.ly/sriwin8class1
20. డేటాబేస్ అంటే ఏమిటి? డేటా ఎలా సేవ్ అవుతుంది? http://bit.ly/sridatabase
21. Task Managerలో అదనపు ఆప్షన్లు వాడడం ఇలా.. http://bit.ly/sriwin8task
22. అనూ ఒరిజినల్ ఫాంట్లు చూడకపోతే ఇక్కడ చూడండి http://bit.ly/srianuoriginal
23. జాబ్ కోసం రంగురంగుల రెజ్యూమ్లు చేయడం ఇలా http://bit.ly/sriresume
24. విండోస్ Safe Modeలో ఏం జరుగుతుంది? http://bit.ly/srimode
25. Airtel, Aircelలలో 3G ఏది స్పీడ్గా ఉంది? http://bit.ly/sriera3G
26. టాబ్లెట్ కొనబోతున్నారా? ఇది ప్రయత్నించండి http://bit.ly/srisamsung
27. ఫోన్ సైలెంట్ మోడ్ వేరేచోటి నుండి ఇలా ఆన్ చేయండి http://bit.ly/srisilent
28. విండోస్ 8లో కొత్త డ్యూయల్ బూటింగ్ చూశారా? http://bit.ly/sriboot
29. లాప్టాప్లో చిన్న హార్డ్ డిస్క్ ఇలాగుంటుంది.. http://bit.ly/srilaphdd
30. నిద్ర సరిపోవట్లేదా? ఇది చాలా యూజ్ఫుల్.. http://bit.ly/srisleep
31. లాప్టాప్ keypadని దుమ్ము నుండి ఇలా కాపాడండి http://bit.ly/srilap
32. ఫొటోల్లో అవసరం లేని భాగాలు ఇలా తొలగించొచ్చు http://bit.ly/sriphocs6
33. విండోస్ 8 రిలీజ్ ప్రివ్యూని ఇన్స్టాల్ చేయడం తెలీదా? http://bit.ly/sriwin8
34. నెట్ లేకుండా Windows అప్డేట్ చేయడం ఇలా http://bit.ly/sriupdatewin
35. మీ మాటలే పాటలుగా మార్చుకోవాలా? http://bit.ly/srisongvoice
36. మీ మొహంతో ఫోన్ని unlock చేయొచ్చు తెలుసా? http://bit.ly/srifaceunlock
37. Samsung Galaxy Note అప్డేట్ ఇలా.. http://bit.ly/srinoteupdate
38. లాప్టాప్తో వచ్చే Free OSని పోగొట్టుకుంటారా? http://bit.ly/srifreeos
39. ఫేస్బుక్ application invitationలు విసిగిస్తున్నాయా? http://bit.ly/fbsri
40. వెబ్సైట్లు ఎలా వేగంగా లోడ్ అవుతాయి? http://bit.ly/srisites
41. చీటికీ మాటికీ Facebook ఇ-మెయిల్స్ వస్తున్నాయా? http://bit.ly/srifbalerts
42. iPhone 4Sలో బ్యాటరీ ఎక్కువ రావాలంటే.. http://bit.ly/sriapplebattery
43. ఆన్లైన్లో బిల్లులు కట్టడం సేఫేనా? http://bit.ly/onlinepayments
44. ఆడియో సిడిలు నేరుగా ఎందుకు కాపీ అవ్వవు? http://bit.ly/sricdcopy
45. మీ కంప్యూటర్ గురించి A to Z సమస్త సమాచారం ఇలా http://bit.ly/sripcdetails
46. 50 GB ఉచిత స్టోరేజ్ స్పేస్ ఇలా పొందండి http://bit.ly/50GBStorage
47. ఆన్లైన్లో కరెంట్ బిల్లులు ఎలా చెల్లించాలి? http://bit.ly/paypowerbill
48. ఒక కంప్యూటర్లో ఇన్స్టాల్ అయినవి వేరోచోటికి ఇలా http://bit.ly/moveapps
49. మీ పిసి వేగంగా పనిచేసేలా ఇలా ఏర్పాటు చేయండి http://bit.ly/srifinetune
50. భవిష్యత్లో ఫోన్లు ఎలాంటివి రాబోతున్నాయి? http://bit.ly/sriphones
51. ప్రింటింగ్ జరగకుండా ప్రింటర్లు ఎందుకు ఫెయిలవుతాయి? http://bit.ly/sriprinter
52. ఒకేసారి 40+ ఏంటీవైరస్లతో ఇలా స్కాన్ చేయండి http://bit.ly/sriantivirus
53. కంప్యూటర్ ఓవర్హీట్ అయి కాలిపోకుండా ఇలా.. http://bit.ly/sricpu
54. మీరు కొన్న ప్రోడక్టులకు manuals పోయాయా? http://bit.ly/sriguide
55. ఏపిల్ Mac కంప్యూటర్లు ఎలా ఉంటాయో చూస్తారా? http://bit.ly/sridharapple
56. మీ పిసి తక్కువ పవర్ వాడుకునేలా ఇలా చేయండి http://bit.ly/sripower
57. విండోస్లోని అన్ని సదుపాయాలూ ఒకేచోట లభ్యం http://bit.ly/sriwinopt
58. విండోస్ 7, 8లలో C, C++ ప్రోగ్రాములు ఇలా రాయండి http://bit.ly/sriCLang
59. మీ కంప్యూటర్లో బ్లూ స్క్రీన్ వస్తోందా? కారణాలివి.. http://bit.ly/sriblue
60. Facebook, Twitterలో అడ్వాన్స్డ్గా మెసేజ్లు పెట్టడం http://bit.ly/sriFBupdates
61. ముఖ్యమైన ఫైళ్లు, ఫోల్డర్లని ఇలా జాగ్రత్త చేసుకోండి http://bit.ly/srisafe
62. ఇక మీ కంప్యూటర్ స్పీడే స్పీడ్ ఇలా చేస్తే http://bit.ly/srispeedup
63. డబుల్ లేయర్ డివిడిల కెపాసిటీ తక్కువెందుకు? http://bit.ly/dvdfact
64. దిస్ ఈజ్ ది సీక్రెట్ ఆఫ్ మై ఎనర్జీ http://bit.ly/sridharsecret
65. మీ ఫైళ్లు కరప్ట్ అవుతున్నాయా? రీజన్స్ ఇవి.. http://bit.ly/sricera
66. మీ హార్డ్డిస్క్ ఎప్పుడైనా డెడ్ అయిపోవచ్చు.. http://bit.ly/sridatasafe
67. వచ్చే తరం మొబైల్ Galaxy Note చూడండి.. http://bit.ly/srinotereview
68. ఏపిల్ iPhone 4S ఎలాగుంటుందో నేరుగా చూస్తారా? http://bit.ly/sri4siphone
69. HPనుండి 5 వేలలో చవకైన నాణ్యమైన టాబ్లెట్ http://bit.ly/srihptouch
70. ఫొటోషాప్లో text effects సృష్టించడం ఇలా.. http://bit.ly/sriphototext
71. మీరు మొబైల్లో ఏం చేస్తుందీ తెలుస్తుందా? http://bit.ly/srimobilesafe
72. టైపింగ్ జెట్ స్పీడ్తో చేసేయండి ఇక.. http://bit.ly/srijetspeed
73. Mac ఆపరేటింగ్ సిస్టమ్లో తెలుగు కావాలా? http://bit.ly/srimactelugu
74. ఇప్పటివరకూ విండోస్ ఇన్స్టలేషన్ తెలీదా? ఇలా.. http://bit.ly/sriwinsetup
75. మీ Facebook అప్డేట్లు SMS ద్వారా పొందాలా? http://bit.ly/fbsmssri
76. ఫేస్బుక్లో టైమ్లైన్ ప్రొఫైల్ సెట్ చేసుకోవడం ఇలా.. http://bit.ly/srifbtimeline
77. మీరు వాడుతున్న మందులు కరెక్టేనా? http://bit.ly/srimedicine
78. ఫోన్ పోయిందా? ఇలా వెదికి పట్టుకోండి.. http://bit.ly/sristolenphone
79. రూటర్ ద్వారా మీ నెట్ని ఫోన్కీ, పిసికి షేరింగ్ ఇలా.. http://bit.ly/srirouter
80. కొత్త డిజిటల్ కెమెరా కొనబోతున్నారా? ఇది చూడాల్సిందే http://bit.ly/sricamera
81. మీ స్వంతంగా వెబ్సైట్ సృష్టించుకోవాలంటే ఇలా చేయండి http://bit.ly/sriwebsite
82. కంప్యూటర్ని స్పీడ్ చేసే కొన్ని టిప్స్ ఇవి.. http://bit.ly/srispeedup1
83. వైరస్ల కన్నా రూట్కిట్లు చాలా ప్రమాదకరం తెలుసా? http://bit.ly/srirootkit
84. విండోస్కి ప్రతీసారీ పాస్వర్డ్ టైప్ చేసే పనిలేకుండా http://bit.ly/sriautologon
85. పొరబాటున డిలీట్ అయిన మేటర్ వెనక్కి వచ్చేలా http://bit.ly/sritextrecover
86. C లాంగ్వేజ్ ఎందుకు వాడతారు? ఏం సాధిస్తారు? http://bit.ly/sriwhyc
87. మీ pen drive ఎంత స్పీడ్దో టెస్ట్ చేసుకుంటారా? http://bit.ly/sritestpen
88. పాటలు కూడా వినగలిగే బ్లూటూత్ హెడ్సెట్ ఇలా http://bit.ly/sribluetooth
89. పిసి లోపల దుమ్ము ఇలా జాగ్రత్తగా దులపాలి http://bit.ly/sripcclean
90. కంప్యూటర్లోని BIOS సెట్టింగులు ఎంత యూజ్ఫుల్లో.. http://bit.ly/sribios
91. వద్దనుకున్న వెబ్సైట్లని బ్లాక్ చేయడం ఇలా.. http://bit.ly/sriwebblock
92. ఫొటోషాప్ వాడుతున్నారా? ఇవి మీకు తెలుసా? http://bit.ly/sriphototips
93. మీ పెన్డ్రైవ్తో పిసిని స్పీడ్ చేయొచ్చని గ్రహించండి.. http://bit.ly/sripenspeed
94. విండోస్లో ఫైల్ పేర్లు బ్లూ కలర్లో ఎందుకు కన్పిస్తాయి http://bit.ly/sribluecolor
95. మీ ఫేస్బుక్ అకౌంట్ని ఇలా రక్షించుకోండి http://bit.ly/fbsafeguard
96. మీ సెల్ఫోన్లోనూ తెలుగు టైప్ చేయొచ్చు ఇలా.. http://bit.ly/sricelltelugu
97. ఇలా చేస్తే ఇక మీకు వైరస్ల బాధే ఉండదు http://bit.ly/srigoodbyevirus
98. Gmail ఐడిలు హ్యాక్ అవకుండా ఇలా జాగ్రత్త పడండి.. http://bit.ly/gmailcare
99. Wordలో Format Painter వల్ల ఎంత ఉపయోగమో.. http://bit.ly/sriwordtips
100. మొండి వైరస్లను బూటింగ్లో తీసేయడం ఇలా http://bit.ly/sribootvirus