Friday, April 27, 2012

New list of demands to release Alex Paul Menon

The fate of abducted Sukma District Collector Alex Paul Menon has taken a new turn, with Maoists sending a new list of demands to the Chhattisgarh government in return for his release.

Besides the release of their eight associates and the suspension of 'Operation Green Hunt', The Maoists are now reportedly demanding that nine more rebels have to be released. The first deadline set by Maoists for meeting their demands to set free abducted Sukma Collector Alex Paul Menon passed on Thursday, amid reports that it was extended by a day in order to give negotiations between mediators of the Chattisgarh government and the Naxals a chance.

A day after the abduction of the Collector, Maoists initially demanded the release of eight cadres before 25 April as well as the suspension of 'Operation Green Hunt'.

he ultras also want anti-Naxal Operation Green Hunt to be cancelled, security forces to be withdrawn from the region and individuals against whom "fake cases" have been registered, released from jails, officials told PTI.

Menon, a 2006-batch IAS officer, was abducted on Sunday from Majhipara village where he was meeting villagers for a government outreach program. The Naxals killed two of his bodyguards who tried to resist the abduction.

Asha Menon, the abducted officer's wife, has appealed to Naxals to release her husband on humanitarian grounds, saying he was an asthmatic. A day after his abduction the Naxals sent a message saying his health was critical and asking for the necessary medicines. The drugs were subsequently delivered by former MLA Manish Kunjam who said that the collector was safe.

[Economy] Different Types of Companies

  1. Paid up Capital
  2. Private company
  3. Public company
  4. Holding company and subsidiary company
  5. Departmental undertakings
  6. Government Company
  7. Public corporation
  8. PSU (Public Sector undertakings)

Paid up Capital

  • This word is going to keep reappearing in next few articles, so better understand it in advance.
  • You already saw that there are two ways to finance a company: Debt + Equity.
  • Paid up Capital means the amount of money contributed via Equity (shareholders)

Private company

  • It has a minimum paid-up capital of Rs.1 lakh
  • It needs minimum to members and maximum 50 members (i.e. The persons who hold its 'equity')
  • This company is to use  the word "Private Limited" at the end of its name.
  • It cannot have more than 50 members
  • It cannot borrow for general public.
  • For example Balaji Telefilms private ltd= Ektaa Kapoor's company, involved in making those boring Saas Bahu serials.
  • Another example: Neela telefilms private ltd. = Asit Modi's company, they produce the comedy serial Tarak Mehta Kaa oolta Chashmaa.
  • : the online shopping website is also a private company, started by Sachin and Binni Bansal.

Public company

  • It has minimum paid-up capital of Rs.5 lakh.
  • Requires minimum seven members to start a public company.
  • It has to hold annual general meeting of shareholders.
  • It can borrow from general public via IPOs and Bonds.
  • For example, Infosys started as a private ltd company in 1981, but in 1992, it re-registered itself as a Public Ltd company and launched the IPO in 1993.

Holding company and subsidiary company

  • If company A holds more than 50% Shares of company B then,
  • Company A is a holding company
  • Company B is a subsidiary company
  • Example: Coal India is a holding company. Bharat Coking ltd, Mahanadi CoalFields ltd are its subsidiary companies.
  • Similarly, Konkan Railway is a subsidiary company of Indian Railways. Although Indian Railways is not a 'Holding Company', it is a Departmental undertaking.

Departmental undertakings

  • They are involved in some commercial activity such as engineering, manufacturing etc. But
  • They're directly controlled by the government, just like any other department
  • For example: Indian Railways, postal Department.
  • They are not registered as companies under the companies act
  • They are wholly financed by
Read more »
Source : mrunal's blog on civils

No proposal to introduce changes in the Civils Mains

Changes in Civil Services Exam
There is no proposal to introduce changes in the Main Examination of the Civil Services Examination, at present. However, Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) has appointed a committee of experts, headed by Prof. Arun S. Nigavekar, Ex. Chairman, UGC, to review the existing structure of Civil Services (Main) examination and suggest necessary changes.
Also there is no proposal to increase the number of attempts for all candidates appearing in Civil Services Examination conducted by UPSC.
This was stated by Shri V. Narayanasamy, Minister of State in the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and PMO in a written reply in Lok Sabha.

Monday, April 23, 2012

Change of venue for Peace rally

Dear All,

Due to Traffic related issue we have changed Peace rally venue to Dharna Chowk, Near Indira Park, Hyderabad. Please note the change and inform all. Thank you

Sunday, April 22, 2012

Peace rally on 23-April for Alex IAS release

ITCSA appeals for early release of Alex Pal Menon IAS


On 21 April 2012, armed Maoists abducted the Chhattisgarh's Sukma District Collector Alex Pal Menon, a young IAS officer hailing from Tamil Nadu while on a visit to an inaccessible area. Menon was abducted from Majhipara village in Keralapal area, which is one of the highly Naxal-infested areas. He had gone to attend the Gram Swaraj Abhijaan(GSA) - a state government-run programme meant to promote greater coordination and connect between the villagers and administration. Menon is an IAS officer of the 2006 batch and married Asha Alex in October last and she is carrying for three months. He is one of the most committed and sincere officers in Chhattisgarh and has been working for the underprivileged sections. He is a good officer and has been doing his work honestly. Menon is the first Collector of the newly-created Sukma district. He was known to be pro-active in undertaking development work in the backward region. Infact he used to tell the grassroot-level government machinery during his visits to the remote locations of Sukma district that not take the excuse of Naxalism for not doing work.

ITCSA (Indian Telugu Civil Servants Association) is organizing a peace rally with candles on 23-04-2012 (Monday) at near Narayana IAS study circle, Ashok Nagar, Hyd. In this regard all are requested to attend the rally and appeal the Naxals through media for unconditional release of Mr. Alex Pal Menon IAS without any delay.

Saturday, April 21, 2012

Maoists have abducted District Collector in Chattisgarh, Alex Paul Menon

Maoists have abducted District Collector in Chattisgarh, Alex Paul Menon(2006 Batch). His two Security Guards have been shot dead.  The Maoists, who were present at the function in plain clothes, walked up to the collector around 4.45 p.m. and tried to take him with them. When Menon's two guards tried to resist them, the rebels shot them dead, an official said.

 Brimming with enthusiasm, young IAS officer Alex Paul Menon - who was abducted by Maoists in Bastar area of Chhattisgarh - used to tell the government officers and staff in Sukma district that they should not try to shirk work taking an excuse of Naxalite threat in their respective areas.

"Don't take the excuse of Naxalism for not doing work," the 2006 batch IAS officer used to tell the grassroot-level government machinery during his visits to the remote locations of Sukma district, considered as a Maoist hotbed in tribal Bastar region.  Sukma district was carved out of the trouble-torn Dantewada, also known as South Bastar, in January this year as a part of the state government's exercise to speed up the development process.

One of our friend Priyatu Mandal has made a Facebook Page on Alex. In these difficult times, this is an effective way of getting our collective voice heard. Please note that a Facebook Page is searchable on Google, and you can view this page even if you are not part of Facebook, or not added to any group. Show your support by Liking the page, and write what you have to. Please visit

Wednesday, April 18, 2012

Free Group-1&2 Coaching

Explanation to PAN Number

PAN is a 10 digit alpha numeric number, where the first 5 characters are letters, the next 4 numbers and the last one a letter again. These 10 characters can be divided in five parts as can be seen below. The meaning of each number has been explained further.

1. First three characters are alphabetic series running from AAA to ZZZ
2. Fourth character of PAN represents the status of the PAN holder.
...• C — Company
• P — Person
• H — HUF(Hindu Undivided Family)
• F — Firm
• A — Association of Persons (AOP)
• T — AOP (Trust)
• B — Body of Individuals (BOI)
• L — Local Authority
• J — Artificial Juridical Person
• G — Government
3. Fifth character represents first character of the PAN holder's last name/surname.
4. Next four characters are sequential number running from 0001 to 9999.
5. Last character in the PAN is an alphabetic check digit.
Nowadays, the DOI (Date of Issue) of PAN card is mentioned at the right (vertical) hand side of the photo on the PAN card.

Tuesday, April 17, 2012

Changes in Civil Service Exam -From




Practising Company Secretary


The Separation of Powers, is a model for the governance of democratic states. The model was first developed in ancient Greece and came into widespread use by the Roman Republic as part of the un-codified Constitution of the Roman Republic. Under this model, the state is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that no one branch has more power than the other branches . The normal division of branches is into an executive, a legislature, and a judiciary.
Different Models
Constitutions with a high degree of separation of powers are found worldwide. The UK system is distinguished by a particular entwining of powers. In Italy the powers are completely separated, even if Council of Ministers needs the vote of confidence from both chambers of Parliament, that's however formed by a wide number of members. A number of Latin American countries have electoral branches of government.

Countries with little separation of power include New Zealand and Canada. Canada makes limited use of separation of powers in practice, although in theory it distinguishes between branches of government.

Complete separation-of-powers systems are almost always presidential, although theoretically this need not be the case. There are a few historical exceptions, such as the  'Directoire'  system of revolutionary France. Switzerland offers an example of non-Presidential separation of powers today: It is run by a seven-member executive branch, the Federal Council. However, some might argue that Switzerland does not have a strong separation of powers system, as the Federal Council is appointed by parliament (but not dependent on parliament), and the judiciary has no power of review.

Theory of Classification of powers

The theory of separation of powers signifies three formulations of structural classification of governmental powers:

(i)       The same person should not form part of more than one of the three organs of the government. For example, ministers should not sit in Parliament.
(ii)    One organ of the government should not interfere with any other organ of the government.
(iii)  One organ of the government should not exercise the functions assigned to any other organ.

In the Indian Context

In a welfare State, the State performs important functions as a Provider, Entrepreneur and Economic Controller, and the objective of the rule of law should be to see that these multifarious and diverse encounters are fair, just and free from arbitrariness. Therefore, it is important to structure and restrict the power of the executive government so as to prevent its arbitrary application or exercise. The rule of law which runs like a golden thread, through every provision of the Constitution and indisputably constitutes one of its basic features requires that every organ of the State must act within the powers conferred upon it by the Constitution and the law.

In India, the doctrine of separation of powers has not been accorded a constitutional status. Apart from the directive principle laid down in Article 50 which enjoins separation of judiciary from the executive, the constitutional scheme does not embody nay formalistic and dogmatic division of powers. The Supreme Court in Ram Jawaya Kapur v. State of Punjab[1], held.

"Indian Constitution has not indeed recognized the doctrine of separation of powers in its absolute rigidity but the functions of the different parts or branches of the government have been sufficiently differentiated and consequently it can be very well said that our Constitution does not contemplate assumption by one organ or part of the State of functions that essentially belong to another."

In Indira Nehru Gandhi v. Raj Narain[2], Ray C.J. observed that in the Indian Constitution there is separation of powers in a broad sense only. A rigid separation of powers as under the American Constitution or under the Australian Constitution does not apply to India. However, the court held that though the constituent power is independent of the doctrine of separation of powers to implant the theory of basic structure as developed in the case of Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala[3] on the ordinary legislative powers will be an encroachment on the theory of separation of powers. Nevertheless, Beg, J. added that separation of powers is a part of the basic structure of the Constitution. None of the three separate organs of the Republic can take over the functions assigned to the other. This scheme of the Constitution cannot be changed even by resorting to Article 368 of the Constitution.


In India, not only is there a 'functional overlapping' but there is 'personnel overlapping' also. The Supreme Court has the power to declare void the laws passed by the legislature and the actions taken by the executive if they violate any provision of the Constitution or the law passed by the legislature in case of executive actions. Even the power to amend the constitution by Parliament is subject to the scrutiny of the Court. The Court can declare any amendment void if it changes the basic structure of the Constitution[4]. The President of India in whom the executive authority of India is vested exercises law-making power in the shape of ordinance-making power and also the judicial powers under Article 103(1) and Article 217(3), to mention only a few. The council of Ministers is selected from the legislature and is responsible to the legislature. The legislature besides exercising law-making powers exercises judicial powers in cases of breach of its privilege, impeachment of the president and the removal of the judges. The executive may further affect the functioning of the judiciary by making appointments to the office of chief Justice and other judge. One can go on listing such examples yet the list would not be exhaustive.  
Check and Balance

The separation of powers is a doctrine which provides a separate authority, which makes it possible for the authorities to check each other's checks and balances. The Supreme Court in Indira Nehru Gandhi v. Raj Narain, it held that adjudication of a specific dispute is a judicial function which Parliament, even acting under a constitutional amending power, cannot exercise.

The Constitution has invested the constitutional courts with the power to invalidated laws made by parliament and State Legislature transgressing constitutional limitations. Where an Act made by the legislature is invalidated by the courts on the ground of legislative incompetence, the legislature cannot enact a law declaring that the judgment of the court shall not operate; it cannot overrule or annual the decision of the court. This is what is meant by "check and balance" inherent in a system of government incorporating separation of powers[5].

If the doctrine of separation of powers in its classical sense, which is now considered as a high school textbook interpretation of this doctrine, cannot be applied to any modern government, this does not mean that the doctrine has no relevance in the world of today. The logic behind this doctrine is still valid. Therefore, not impassable barriers and unalterable frontiers but mutual restraint in the exercise of power by the three organs of the State is the soul of the doctrine of separation of powers. Hence the doctrine can be better appreciated as a 'doctrine of check and balance' and in this sense administrative process is not an antithesis of the 'doctrine of separation of powers'.

In Indira Nehru Gandhi v. Raj Narain[6], Chandrachud, J. (as he then was) also observed that the "…political usefulness of the 'doctrine of separation of powers' is now widely recognised…" No Constitution can survive without a conscious adherence to its fine checks and balances. "Just as courts ought not to enter into problems entwined in the 'political thicket', Parliament must also respect the preserve of the courts. The principle of separation of powers is a principle of restraint which 'has in it the precept, innate in the prudence of self-preservation…that discretion is the better part of valour'.


Therefore, the "Doctrine of separation of Powers" in today's context of Liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation cannot be interpreted to mean either 'separation of powers' or 'check and balance' or 'principle of restraint' but community of powers exercised in the spirit of cooperation by various organs of the State in the best interest of the people

Sunday, April 15, 2012

Undisclosed income detected by CBDT

During the financial year (FY) 2011-12, the Investigation Directorates of the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) conducted searches on 330 groups involved in different businesses / activities. On the basis of assets, documents and other evidence unearthed during such searches, undisclosed income exceeding Rs.9,200 crore was detected. Number of search warrants executed in FY 2011-12 was 5,132 as against 4,852 warrants executed in FY 2010-11. Unaccounted assets of the value of Rs.880 crore (including cash amounting to Rs.500 crore) were seized in FY 2011-12 as against assets of the value of Rs.775 crore (including cash amounting to Rs.440 crore) seized in FY 2010-11.

In the last three financial years (FY 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12), undisclosed income of Rs.28,040 crore has been detected by the Investigation Directorates of the Central Board of Direct Taxes(CBDT). Several searches were conducted on the basis of information received relating to assets held abroad by tax residents of India. Disclosure of details regarding assets held abroad is being made mandatory in the income tax returns. Non-furnishing of such information in the income tax returns, and its subsequent detection, will invariably lead to prosecution under the Income Tax Act.

Searches are conducted under the Income Tax Act on the basis of credible information regarding tax evasion after conducting necessary verification. Information technology tools such as ITDMS have been developed and are being extensively utilized to process and verify information before taking intrusive action. The Supreme Court of India, in Civil Appeal No.7914 of 2009, has observed that any bona fide measures taken in public interest, and to provide public safety or to prevent circulation of black money, cannot be objected as interference with the personal liberty or freedom of a citizen. Due to intrusive action, such as searches in residences or at airports, "certain hardship and inconvenience is inevitable, and should be accepted with grace, patience, and discipline" as it is for the citizen's "own interest", observed the Apex Court.

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8 Minute Meditation

The Definitive Book of Body Language

How To Teach So Students Remember

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The Yoga System by Swami Krishnananda

Careers 360 Magazine

100 Most Strangest Myst

L.K Autobiography

World Famous Recipes


The Jungle Book

The Baby and Child

100 Winning Resumes

A brief history of time

Wisdom of the Sadhu

Man Eater of Malgudi(R.K Narayan )

Swami and Friends(R.K Narayan)

The Awakening of Intelligence

Thoughts on Children

source :

Free UPSC Civil Service Notes  -  Free prelims practice test - free e-books on current topics - Free Law Notes - Online Demo Test - Free current affairs notes - Free History Notes - Free info on Bio-technology concepts - Free sociology Notes - Free Notes on Various subjects

Thursday, April 12, 2012

Bend but Don't Break (Story)-- Unknown

One of my fondest memories as a child is going by the river and sitting 
idly on the bank. There I would enjoy the peace and quiet, watch the water 
rush downstream, and listen to the chirps of birds and the rustling of 
leaves in the trees. I would also watch the bamboo trees bend under 
pressure from the wind and watch them return gracefully to their upright or 
original position after the wind had died down. 

When I think about the bamboo tree's ability to bounce back or return to 
it's original position, the word resilience comes to mind. When used in 
reference to a person this word means the ability to readily recover from 
shock, depression or any other situation that stretches the limits of a 
person's emotions. 

Have you ever felt like you are about to snap? Have you ever felt like you 
are at your breaking point? Thankfully, you have survived the experience to 
live to talk about it. 

During the experience you probably felt a mix of emotions that threatened 
your health. You felt emotionally drained, mentally exhausted and you most 
likely endured unpleasant physical symptoms. 

Life is a mixture of good times and bad times, happy moments and unhappy 
moments. The next time you are experiencing one of those bad times or 
unhappy moments that take you close to your breaking point, bend but don't 
break. Try your best not to let the situation get the best of you. 

A measure of hope will take you through the unpleasant ordeal. With hope 
for a better tomorrow or a better situation, things may not be as bad as 
they seem to be. The unpleasant ordeal may be easier to deal with if the 
end result is worth having. 

If the going gets tough and you are at your breaking point, show 
resilience. Like the bamboo tree, bend, but don't break! 

Monday, April 9, 2012

Where U will be in future....

Every king was once a crying baby and
 every great building was once a map..
Its not important where U are today,
 but where U will reach tomorrow..
So, open up your eyes and
 see where U will be in future....

University PG CET - 2012

Sunday, April 8, 2012

Videos for Civil Service Aspirants

 Motivational video "Change your mind in just 2.50 mins"

Video on Optional selection

How to Prepare for Indian Civil Services Main Exams?

 Art of Preparation for Indian Civil Services Exam

Prepare For IAS interviews like ...... they Do


IPS Probationers Training

Anthropology- some useful Notes





Introduction to the study of ethnic and national identity: the stakes, and why the stakes are so high



Ethnic identity I



Ethnic identity II



Nation and nationalism



Ethnicity, state, nation



State, nation, culture



Culture: definitions



Ethnic conflict I



Ethnic conflict II


Race I



Race II


Race III



Ethnic identity, nationalism and gender



Ethnic identity, state, and sexuality



Religion, ethnicity, the nation



Language and culture, ethnicity, race



Culture recovery



Culture: appropriations, heritage, "selling culture"


Human rights, collective rights



New social movements



Transnationalism, globalization and culture





Introduction: Anthropology and Its Divisions (PDF)


Being Cultural (PDF)


Ethnography (PDF)


Writing and Pain (PDF)


Uniqueness and Cultural Difference (PDF)


Race and Biological Difference (PDF)


Giving and Receiving (PDF)


Potlatch and Kula (PDF)


Morality and Cultural Relativism (PDF)


Anthropological Studies of Science (PDF)


Thinking Symbolically (PDF)


Kinship and Marriage (PDF)


The Nuer of the Sudan (PDF)


Making Sense of the Nuer (PDF)


Making More Sense of the Nuer (PDF)


Problems with Culture (PDF)


More Problems with Culture (PDF)

Rule 49 O of the Conduct of Elections Rules, 1961

Rule 49 O of the Conduct of Elections Rules, 1961- exercise of option by the voters – Impact on the election result.

It has been brought to the notice of the Commission that various misleading reports are being circulated though the Press, the
electronic media, emails and through  SMS to the effect that if the number of voters who choose to exercise their option  not to vote for any
contesting candidate as provided in  Rule 49-O of Conduct of Elections Rules, 1961, exceeds the margin  of votes secured by the winning
candidate over the runner up, this will invalidate the election and a re-poll will be held.

  It is clarified that under Rule 49-O, the voter has an option not to vote at the election after he has been identified at the polling station and his name has been registered in Registers of voters (Form -17A).  The Presiding Officer shall thereupon make a note to that effect against the name of that voter and obtain his signature (thumb impression in the case of an illiterate  ).  In such case, the voters who exercise the option of not voting at the election under Rule 49-O would only be deemed to have abstained  themselves from voting and under the law, the candidate who secures highest number of valid votes polled, irrespective of his winning margin, is declared elected.

Friday, April 6, 2012

Recap of 2011 Civil service results

The Civil Services Examination is the most important and prestigious examination amongst various examinations conducted by the UPSC. It attracts largest number of candidates from the entire length and breadth of the country. The selected candidates are appointed to the higher Civil Services of the country.

Following are the important highlights of the Civil Services Examination, 2010, for which final result has been declared in May 2011:

  • A total number of 5,47,698 candidates applied for this examination, 2,69,036 candidates appeared for the Preliminary examination, which was conducted on May 23, 2010.
  • 12,491 candidates qualified for the Main written examination held in October ¡V November, 2010. 2589 candidates were short listed for the Personality Test conducted in March-April, 2011.
  • Finally, 920 candidates (717 male and 203 female) have been recommended for appointment to the IAS, IFS, IPS and other Central Services.
  • Ms. S.Divyadharshini (Roll NO.014421), a female candidate, has topped the Civil Services Examination, 2010. She has done B.A., B.L.(Hons.) from Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Chennai. This is her second attempt.
  • The second ranker is Ms. Sweta Mohanty (Roll NO.316736). She has done B.Tech (Computer Science) from GRIET, JNTU, Hyderabad. This is her third attempt.
  • Mr. RV Varun Kumar (Roll No.021490), is the topper among male candidates. He has secured overall third rank. He has done BDS from Ragas Dental College, Chennai. This is his third attempt.
  • The Top 25 candidates consist of 20 males and 5 females.
  • Educational qualification ¡Vwise the top 25 candidates comprise of 15 candidates belonging to Engineering; 5 candidates belonging to Commerce, Management, Humanities, Science & Social Sciences; and 5 candidates belonging to Medical Science background.
  • Out of the Top 25 candidates, 8 have made to the merit list in their first attempt, 4 in second attempt, 9 in third attempt, 3 in fourth attempt and 1 in fifth attempt.
  • Of the 920 candidates recommended, 28 are physically challenged candidates ¡V 14 orthopaedically challenged; 5 visually impaired and 9 hearing impaired.


Right To Education Progress

Second Anniversary of RTE: Some Highlights

There has been improvement at the national level since RTE became operative from 01.04.2010

a. Last year at this time only 15 States had notified the State RTE Rules. Today, this number has increased to 32. Goa and Karnataka are the two States which have yet to notify the RTE Rules. The Ministry continues to follow up with these States.

b. Similarly, last year 11 States had notified the SCPCRs/REPA. Today this number has increased to 21. An Advisory has been issued by the Ministry to States on instituting a Grievance Redressal mechanism to address violations of the RTE Act.

c. 31 States have notified the academic authority under section 29 of the RTE Act. This figure was 20 last year. This is significant, because the academic authority under section 29 is responsible for ensuring that the curriculum and evaluation procedure is in accordance with constitutional values and the child centred principles enunciated in the Act. In recent times there has been much media debate on the quality of learning – especially when the ASER report was published. Another study undertaken by ASER, titled Inside Primary Schools, pointed out that learning material created by States is often two levels higher than the age-appropriate level. This issue was discussed with State Education Ministers in a conference in January this year. An Advisory on Quality has also been issued by the Ministry to the States.
d. Most States have issued circulars and notifications to re-iterate the child centred provisions of the RTE Act. These include notifications and circulars prohibiting corporal punishment, detention, expulsion, Board examination at class V, VIII, etc. As it was felt that there was not enough understanding on the rationale for these provisions despite the large number of workshops that the Ministry had conducted a section-by-section rationale of the provisions of the Act was developed and circulated to the States.

A document prepared on the occasion – RTE: The 2nd Year ­– gives the status with respect to enrolment indicators, teacher related indicators and infrastructure indicators. It compares data collected with reference dates 30 September 2009 and 30 September 2010. By and large the enrolment indicators are reasonably healthy. There has been a decline in the annual average dropout rate from 9.1 in 2009-10 to 6.9 in 2010-11. There has been an over 5% decline in drop out rate in Bihar (7.06), Jharkhand (5.30), Nagaland (6.23) and Uttar Pradesh (5.65). But, sadly, some States (Haryana, Mizoram) have also shown an increase in drop out rate. The percentage of girls' enrollment to total enrolment at primary and upper primary level has remained at 48. This is on account of their overall share in the population. However, adverse child sex ratio is a cause of concern.

Insofar as teachers are concerned, at the national level there is a pupil teacher ratio of 30:1. Since RTE became operative, over 6 lakh teacher posts have been sanctioned under SSA. But despite an overall healthy PTR at the national level, there is concern that at the primary level there are 43% schools with a PTR higher than 30:1. At the upper primary level there are 33% schools with a PTR greater than 35:1. Time has now come for the country to take up rationalisation of teacher deployment seriously, so that all schools have the requisite number of teachers. This undoubtedly needs both political and administrative will.

As regards infrastructure, under SSA 4,96,231 classrooms have been sanctioned in the two years since RTE became operative. Much of the civil works under construction will actually be completed in the year to come. Most schools now do have drinking water and toilets but ramps, boundary walls, etc are still required.

The country will meet the RTE goals in the coming years. The Government is committed to providing support to States. The Central outlays for implementing the RTE-SSA programme have practically doubled since 2009-10 (Rs 13,100 crore in 2009-10 to Rs 25,555 crore in 2012-13)


Mrunal's Articles on UPSC: Economy

  1. How To get the cash to start my company?
  2. Problems in above options
  3. Financing my company: Debt OR Equity
  4. #1: Debt: Bonds
  5. #2: Equity –Shares
  6. Debt vs Equity : good and Bad things
  7. Upcoming articles
I want to start an Ice cream company, what will I need?
LandTo build a factory.
LaborWorkers to run the machines.
Capital Freezers, mixers and packing machines to make ice-cream.
EntrepreneurshipTo take the risk and do above three things.
  • These are called the four factors of production.
  • I already have the entrepreneurship in my heart and mind.
  • But it requires truckload of cash to arrange for the other three items: Land, Labour and Capital.

How To get the cash to start my company?

  • I can rob a bank
  • Or I can just start my own IIT Bombay, sell its application forms for 5,000 rupees and then declare cut off 99.99% and thus earning truckload of cash without actually wasting a single rupee in arranging the admission interviews.
  • Or I can join politics.

Problems in above options

  • Can't rob a rob a bank because this too requires Labour (gangsters) and Capital (guns, masks, vehicles) and Entrepreneurship (to take the risk of going to jail).
  • Can't start my own IIT Bombay would again require those four factors of production (Land, Labour, Capital, Entrepreneurship)+Permissions from UGC/AICTE.
  • Can't join politics because Only ministers can make huge money, MPs/MLAs don't. And Unfortunately I'm not a son or daughter of some big politician so I can't become minister @ young age (Agatha Sangma,  Sachin Pilot, Naveen Jindal et al) So even If I join politics right now, I'll have to do bootlicking of 'Party high command' until I get 60 years old, only then I can become minister and break the records set by A.Raja and Madhu Koda.
Now, There are two ways to (legally) arrange money for starting a company or to expand a company. First is Debt and Second Equity. See this chart

Financing my company: Debt OR Equity

#1: Debt- bond

  • The word debt is self-explanatory. You borrow money from someone: It can be a bank, it can be a friend, it can be a stranger.
  • I write on a piece of paper: "To whoever pays me Rs.1000, I'll pay annual 10% interest rate (Rs.100). And after 5 years, I'll also repay the principle amount Rs.1000. No "ifs" and "buts".
  • This is one type of security paper. We call it "BOND".
  • IF you hold my bonds, I'm liable to pay you money no matter what happens. Whether my ice-cream company actually makes profit or goes Kingfisher. I have to keep paying fixed money to you, every year.

Junk Bonds vs Gilt Edged Security

  • In above case I offered you 10% interest rate. But in real life, there are credit rating companies like CRISIL, S&P, Moody's etc. They'll give credit ratings to a bond. (i.e. Am I capable enough to actually pay you?).
  • Based on that, they give ratings example AA,A, BBB, BB,C,D etc.
  • I had talked about them in my previous article : Link between Credit Rating and Interest Rates

Junk Bonds

  • If my Bond gets "C" or "D" rating, it means I'm not creditworthy, I may default on this loan, I may run away. So my bond is as junk as Ra.One movie. A wise man will not invest in it.
  • So, how can I seduce you into purchasing my bonds?  How can I convenience you to take the higher risk, in buying my junk bond?
  • How about Free caller Tunes or a scratch-card that offers you a chance to dine with Sachin or Katrina?
  • Or How about Higher Interest rates: "If you give me Rs.1000, I'll give you 25% interest rate per year!"
  • This is also known as "High Yield Bond", because you're getting higher profit.

Gilt Edged Securities

  • Like an ice cream company, Government also needs finance- at times when tax collection is low and they need some temporary funds.
  • They issues treasury bonds. RBI sells these treasury bonds on Government's behalf.
  • But Governments generally have the "aukaat" to repay the principle and interest rates. Hence Government bonds have higher credit ratings (AA). So, they don't need to seduce you, they'll offer very low rate, say 4%.
  • Similarly, well known companies with high credit ratings (AA) also issue bonds but pay low  rates.
  • If you don't like to take risks, you'll invest in such bonds. These are called 'gilt-edged securities'.

Bearer Bonds (and Bad Guys)

  • In Bollywood movies, Kidnapper demands ransom of Rs.10 lakhs but he wants the money in the denomination of Rs.5/10/50 Rupee notes. Why? Because it is easy to circulate that money and harder for police or banks to keep track of it.
  • Same way, in Hollywood Spy-thriller movies, the Villain will ask you to pay 10 million dollars in Bearer bonds.
  • Bearer bonds are same as regular bonds, but they don't have 'holder's name' on it. These bearer bonds have coupons attached with them. So, if you don't want to withdraw the whole money, you can cut a few coupons and sell them to a broker to withdraw partial amount.
  • E.g. if Rs.100 interest is paid on 1st April 2012, But even on December-2011 you can sell the coupon to a Broker. Although he'll not give you Rs.100 but something like Rs.95 or 90. (Why so? Think about it!)
  • Anyways, the point is, Noone can keep a track of who withdrew the money, who's buying, who's selling Because there are no "names", addresses or records. Bad guys like it, because this ensures anonymity.
  • See the following example photograph of a Bearer bond of Government of Palestine. Notice that it doesn't have space for
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From: Mrunal Patel <>